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Why, A Medley of Potpourri is just what it says; various thoughts, opinions, ruminations, and contemplations on a variety of subjects. Post a Comment. Follow by Email. Search This Blog. Wednesday, September 25, What I mean by this is that I could find no way of writing it without requiring the reader to put his thinking mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er imagining cap on. I have already mentioned the way science is a step-by-step, often even torturous, process of discovering facts, running experiments, making observations, thinking about them, and so on; a slow but steady accumulation of knowledge and theory which gradually reveals to us the way nature works, as well as why.
But there is more to science than this. This more has to do with the concept, or hope I might say, of trying to understand things like the universe as a whole, or things as tiny as atoms, or geological time, or events that happen over exceedingly short times scales, like billionths of a second. I say hope because in dealing with such things, we are extremely removed from reality as we deal with it every day, in the normal course of our lives. There is of course good reason why this should be, and is, so.
Our intuitions and common sense reasoning have been sculpted by our evolution — I will resist the temptation to say designed, although that often feels to be the case, for, ironically, the same reasons — to grasp and deal with ordinary events over ordinary scales of time and space.
As the English biologist and author Richard Dawkins has noted several times in his books, one of the reasons so many people have mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er hard time accepting Darwinian evolution is the extremely long time scale over which it occurs, time scales in the millions of years and more.
But that feeling is precisely what we should ignore in evaluating the possibility of such 3 ninjas em apuros games, because we cannot have any such feeling for the exceedingly long time span it would take. Rather, we have to evaluate the likelihood using evidence and hard logic; commonsense can seriously mislead us. The same is true for nature on the scale of the extremely small.
When we mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er poking around in this territory, around with things like atoms and sub-atomic particles, we find ourselves in a world which bears little resemblance to the one we are used to. I am going to try various ways of giving you a sense of how the ultra-tiny works, but I know in advance that no matter what I do I am still going to be presenting concepts and ideas that seem, if anything, more outlandish than Darwinian evolution; ideas and concepts that might, no, probably will, leave your head spinning.
If it is any comfort, they often leave my mind spinning as well. And again, the only reason to accept them is that they pass the scientific tests of requiring evidence and passing the muster of logic and reason; but they will often seem preposterous, nevertheless.
The reason we need mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er an enormous number when dealing with atoms is that they are so mind-overwhelmingly small. When I say mind-overwhelmingly, I really mean it. A good illustration of just how small that I enjoy is to compare the number of atoms in a glass of water to the number of glasses of water in all the oceans on our planet.
As incredible as it sounds, the ratio of the former to the latter is around 10, to 1. This means that if you fill a glass with water, walk down to the seashore, pour the water into the ocean and wait long enough for it to disperse evenly throughout all the oceans if anyone has managed to calculate how long this would take, please let me knowthen dip your now empty glass into the sea and re-fill it, you will have scooped up some ten thousand of the original atoms that it contained.
Another good way of stressing the smallness mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er atoms is to note that every time you breathe in you are inhaling some of the atoms that some historical figure — say Benjamin Franklin or Muhammad — breathed in his lifetime.
Some interesting systems that do possess scale invariance are mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er among the mathematical entities called fractals: A good example of this is the Koch snowflake:. There are a number of physical systems that have scale invariance as well, but, as I just said, in general this is not true.
Making flies human sized, or vice-versa, run into similar kinds of problems a fly can walk on walls and ceilings because it is so small that electrostatic forces dominate its behavior far more than gravity. Scale Invariance — Why it Matters. One natural phenomenon mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er we know lacks scale invariance, we met in the last chapter is matter itself.
We know now that you cannot take a piece of matter, a nugget of gold for example, and keep cutting it into smaller and smaller pieces, and so on until the end of time.
Eventually we reach the scale of individual gold atoms, and then even smaller, into the electrons, protons, and neutrons that comprise the atoms, all of which are much different things than the nugget we started out with.
I hardly need to say that all elements, and all their varied combinations, up to stars and galaxies and larger, including even the entire universe, suffer the same fate. Why do I take the time to mention all this?
Because we are en route to explaining how atoms, electrons and all, are built up and how they behave, and we need to understand that what goes on in nature at these scales is very different than what we are accustomed to, and that if we cannot adopt our thinking to these different behaviors we are going to find it very tough, actually impossible, hey violet i m there google, indeed.
In my previous book, Wondering AboutI out of necessity gave a very rough picture of the world of atoms and electrons, and how that picture helped explained the various chemical and biological behaviors that a number of atoms mostly carbon displayed.
But mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er, in a book largely dedicated to chemistry, I think the sledding is worth it, even necessary, even mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er we do still have to make some dashes around trees and skirt the edges mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er ponds and creeks, and so forth.
Actually, it seems to me that there are two approaches to this field, the field of quantum mechanics, the world we are about to enter, and how it applies to chemistry. One is to simply present the details, as if out avaya phone manager 4.2 skype a cook book: The problem with this approach is that, although it cuts straight to the chase, it leaves out the historical development of quantum mechanics, which, Mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er believe, is needed mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er we are to understand why and how physicists came to present us with such a peculiar view of reality.
They had very mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er reasons for doing so, and mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er the development of modern quantum mechanical theory is something that took several decades to mature and is still in some respects an unfinished body of work. Again, this is largely because some it its premises and findings are at odds with what we would intuitively expect about the world another is that the math can be very difficult.
These are premises and findings such as the quantitization of energy and other properties to discrete values in very small systems such as atoms. Talking About Light and its Nature. A good way of launching this discussion is to begin with light, or, more precisely, electromagnetic radiation.
What do I mean by these polysyllabic words? The culmination of all this brilliant theoretical and experimental work was summarized by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who in published a set of eight equations describing the relationships between the two phenomena and all that had been discovered about them. These equations were then further condensed down into four and placed in one of their modern forms in by Oliver Heaviside. One version of these equations is if you are a fan of partial differential equations:.
The important part here is that the equations predict the existence of electromagnetic waves propagating through free space at the speed of light; waves rather like water waves on the open ocean albeit different in important respects.
Maxwell at once realized that light must be just such a wave, but, more importantly, that there must be a theoretically infinite number of such waves, each with different wavelengths ranging from the very longest, what we now call radio waves, to the shortest, or gamma rays. An example of such a wave is illustrated below:. To assist you in understanding this wave, look at just one component of it, the oscillating electric field, or the part that is going up and down.
For those not familiar with the idea of an electric or magnetic field, simply take a bar magnet, set it on a piece of paper, and sprinkle iron filings around it. The pattern literally traces out the, in this case, magnetic field of the bar magnet, but we could have used an electrically charged source to produce clavicembalo ben temperato pdf somewhat different pattern. The point is, the field makes the iron filings move into their respective positions; furthermore, if we were to move the magnet back and forth or side to side the filings would continuously move with it to assume their desired places.
Mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er back to the previous figure, of the electromagnetic wave. Now, imagine this wave passing through a wire made of copper or any other metal. Not only would they do that, but the resulting electron motions could be picked up by the right kinds of electronic gizmos, transistors and capacitators and resistors and the like — here, we have just explained the basic working principle of radio transmission and receiving, assuming the wire is the mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er.
Not bad for a few paragraphs of reading. This sounds all very nice and neat, yet it is but our first foot into the door of what leads to modern quantum theory. Blackbody Radiation and the Photo-electric Effect. If you take an object, say, the tungsten filament of the familiar incandescent light bulb, and start pumping energy into it, not only will its temperature rise but at some point it will begin to emit visible light: Even before it starts to visibly glow, the filament emits infrared radiation, which consist of longer wavelengths than visible red, and is outside our range of vision.
It does so in progressively greater and greater amounts and shorter and shorter wavelengths, until the red light region and above is finally reached. At not much higher temperatures the filament melts, or at least breaks at one of its ends which is why it is made from tungsten, the metal with the highest melting pointbreaking the electric current and causing us to replace the bulb.
The filament is a blackbody in the sense that, to a first approximation, it completely absorbs all radiation poured onto it, and so its electromagnetic spectrum depends only on its temperature and not any on properties of its physical or chemical composition. Other such objects which are blackbodies include the sun and stars, and even our own bodies — if you could see into right region of the infrared range of radiation, we would all be glowing.
A set of five blackbody electromagnetic spectra are illustrated below:. Examine these spectra, the colored curves, carefully. What is pertinent to the discussion here is that, if we were living mukaddes halay potpourri youtube erall these spectra would be experimental; it was not possible then, using the physical laws and equations known at the end of the s, to explain or predict them theoretically.
Another, seemingly altogether different, phenomenon that could not be explained using classical physics principles was the so-called photoelectric effect. The general idea is simple enough: There are three different light rays shown striking the potassium plate: Note that the red light fails to eject any electrons at all, while the green and purple rays eject only one electron, with the purple electron escaping with a higher velocity, meaning higher energy, than the green.
This is something you can easily appreciate by walking into the ocean until the water is up to your chest; both the higher the waves are and the faster they hit you, the harder it is to stay on your feet.
If light behaved as a classical wave it should not only be the wavelength but the intensity or brightness assuming this is the equivalent of amplitude that determines how many electrons are ejected and with what velocity. But this is not what we see: In fact, increasing the intensity only increases the number of escaping electrons, assuming any escape at all, not their velocity.
All in all, a very strange situation, which, as I said, had physicists scratching their heads all over at the end of the s. The answers to these puzzles, and several others, comes back to the point I made earlier about nature not being scale invariant. These conundrums were simply insolvable until scientists began to think of things like atoms and electrons and light waves as being quite unlike anything they were used to on the larger scale of human beings and the world as we perceive it.
Using such an approach, the two men who cracked the blackbody spectrum problem and the photoelectric effect, Max Planck and Albert Einstein, did so by discarding the concept of light being a classical wave and instead, as Newton had insisted two hundred years earlier, thought of it as a particle, a particle which came to be called a photon. But they also did not allude to the photon as a classical particle either but as a particle with a wavelength; furthermore, that the energy E of this particle was described, or quantizedby the equation.
In contrast to our earlier, classical description of waves, the amplitude is to be found nowhere in the equation; only the wavelength, or frequency, of the photon determines its energy. A particle with a mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er Or, conversely, a wave that acts like a particle even if only under certain circumstances?
A wavicle? Trying to wrap your mind around such a concept is like awakening from a strange dream in which bizarre things, only vaguely remembered, happened. And the only justification of this dream world is that it made sense of what was being seen in the laboratories of those who studied these phenomena.
Max Planck, for example, was able, using this definition, to develop an equation which correctly predicted the shapes of blackbody spectra at all possible temperature ranges. And Einstein elegantly showed how it solved the mystery of the photoelectric effect: It all fit perfectly.
The world of the quantum had made its first secure foot prints in the music vay delam atish migiram of physics. The Quantum and the Atom.
Part of the reason for mukaddes halay potpourri youtube er is that, as I have tutorial photoshop cs7 release, atoms were not widely accepted as real, physical entities until electrons and radioactivity were discovered by people like the Curies and J.
Another part is that, even if accepted, physics through the end of the s simply could not explain how atoms could be stable entities.